Ken Jacobs, Kuochih Huang, Jenifer MacGillvary, and Enrique Lopezlira, “The Public Cost of Low-Wage Jobs in the US Construction Industry” (UC Berkeley Labor Center, January 2022), https://laborcenter.berkeley.edu/the-public-cost-of-low-wage-jobs-in-the-US-construction-industry/.
 Matthew F. Capece, “Fraudulent Schemes and Violations of Employment, Tax and Other Laws in the Construction Industry” (United Brotherhood of Carpenters, July 16, 2021).
 Russell Ormiston et al., “Rebuilding Residential Construction,” in Creating Good Jobs: An Industry-Based Strategy, ed. Paul Osterman (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2020), 76.
 Russell Ormiston, Dale Belman, and Mark Erlich, “An Empirical Methodology to Estimate the Incidence and Costs of Payroll Fraud in the Construction Industry,” January 2020, https://stoptaxfraud.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/National-Carpenters-Study-Methodology-for-Wage-and-Tax-Fraud-Report-FINAL.pdf.
 See our national study for a short literature review of research on the use of misclassification and other payroll fraud in the construction industry. Jacobs et al., “The Public Cost of Low-Wage Jobs in the US Construction Industry.”
 US Census Bureau, ACS 2019 1-year estimates, table C24070, Industry By Class Of Worker For The Civilian Employed Population 16 Years And Over. “People employed in construction” excludes self-employed in own incorporated business workers. Accessed 12/2/2021.
 Bureau of Economic Analysis, SAGDP2N Gross domestic product (GDP) by state 1/, accessed 12/2/2021.
 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, SAINC5N Personal Income by Major Component and Earnings by NAICS Industry 1/, accessed 12/2/2021.
 “Union Membership and Coverage Database from the CPS,” http://www.unionstats.com. Due to the small sample size, we averaged collective bargaining coverage in Washington for the years 2018-2020.
 Teresa A. Coughlin, Haley Samuel-Jakubos, and Rachel Garfield, “Sources of Payment for Uncompensated Care for the Uninsured” (Kaiser Family Foundation, April 6, 2021), https://www.kff.org/uninsured/issue-brief/sources-of-payment-for-uncompensated-care-for-the-uninsured/.
 Sara Hinkley, Annette Bernhardt, and Sarah Thomason, “Race to the Bottom: How Low‐Road Subcontracting Affects Working Conditions in California’s Property Services Industry” (UC Berkeley Center for Labor Research and Education, March 8, 2016), http://laborcenter.berkeley.edu/race-to-the-bottom/.
 Lisa Xu and Mark Erlich, “Economic Consequences of Misclassification in the State of Washington” (Harvard Labor and Worklife Program, December 2019), https://lwp.law.harvard.edu/files/lwp/files/wa_study_dec_2019_final.pdf.
 CPWR – The Center for Construction Research and Training, “The Construction Chart Book: The U.S. Construction Industry and Its Workers, Sixth Edition,” February 2018, https://www.cpwr.com/wp-content/uploads/publications/The_6th_Edition_Construction_eChart_Book.pdf.
 Undocumented immigrants have long been excluded from receiving assistance from federal benefit programs, except under specific circumstances. For more information see: National Immigration Law Center, Overview of Immigrant Eligibility for Federal Programs, https://www.nilc.org/issues/economic-support/table_ovrw_fedprogs/.
 Capece, “Fraudulent Schemes and Violations of Employment, Tax and Other Laws in the Construction Industry.”
 Sylvia A. Allegretto et al., “Fast Food, Poverty Wages: The Public Cost of Low-Wage Jobs in the Fast-Food Industry,” October 15, 2013, http://laborcenter.berkeley.edu/fast-food-poverty-wages-the-public-cost-of-low-wage-jobs-in-the-fast-food-industry/.
We would like to thank Dale Belman for reviewing a draft of this report. We also thank Laurel Lucia for help understanding Medicaid data and Scott Littlehale for guidance on industry data sources.
The United Brotherhood of Carpenters provided funding for this research.
Jacobs, Ken, Kuochih Huang, Jenifer MacGillvary, and Enrique Lopezlira. The Public Cost of Low-Wage Jobs in the Washington Construction Industry. UC Berkeley Labor Center, January 2022. https://laborcenter.berkeley.edu/the-public-cost-of-low-wage-jobs-in-the-washington-construction-industry/.